When one has finished a substantial paper there is commonly a mood in which it seems that there is really nothing in it. Do not worry, later on you will be thinking "At least I could do something good then."

- J. E. Littlewood

Preprints

Publication bias and the canonization of false facts
S. B. Nissen, T. Magidson, K. Gross, and C. T. Bergstrom
arXiv:1609.00494 [physics.soc-ph]
[PDF]
Men set their own cites high: Gender and self-citation across fields and over time
M. M. King, C. T. Bergstrom, S. J. Correll, J. J. Jacquet, and J. D. West
arXiv:1607.00376 [physics.soc-ph]
[PDF]
Why Scientists Chase Big Problems: Individual Strategy and Social Optimality
C. T. Bergstrom, J. G. Foster, and Y. Song
arXiv:1605.05822 [physics.soc-ph]
[PDF]
Defensive complexity and the phylogenetic conservation of immune control
E. Chastain, R. Antia, C. T. Bergstrom
arXiv:1211.2878 [q-bio.PE]
[PDF]
This replaces arXiv:1203.4601, Defensive complexity in antagonistic coevolution.

Reprints

2016

Adaptive behavior can produce maladaptive anxiety due to individual differences in experience
F. Meacham and C. T. Bergstrom
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health, in press.
Also arXiv:1501.03205 [q-bio.PE]
[PDF] [HTML]
Depression and anxiety: maladaptive byproducts of adaptive mechanisms
C. T. Bergstrom and F. Meacham
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health 2016 214-218
[PDF] [HTML]
You Lookin' at Me? (Letter)
C. T. Bergstrom, B. R. Wasik, and R. E. Lenski
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Early View
[PDF]
Correcting an amusing detail of Cohen et al's fascinating report on an organized peer review fraud.
A recommendation system based on hierarchical clustering of an article-level citation network
J. D. West, I. Wesley-Smith, and C. T. Bergstrom
IEEE Transactions on Big Data 2:113-123
[PDF]
More on Data Sharing (Letter)
C. T. Bergstrom
New England Journal of Medicine 374: 1895-1896
[PDF]
Static ranking of scholarly papers using article-level Eigenfactor (ALEF)
I. Wesley-Smith, C. T. Bergstrom, and J. D. West
WSDM 2016
[PDF]

2015

Theory, Models, and Biology
W. Shou, C. T. Bergstrom, J. K Chakraborty, and F. K. Skinner
eLife 4: e07158
[HTML] [PDF]
Taking the Bad with the Good
C. T. Bergstrom and B. Kerr
Nature 521: 431-432
[PDF]
This is a News and Views piece on an article by Kelsic et al. in the same issue of Nature. We lay out our "bystander model" of the Rock Paper Scissors game in the assocciated supplmentary material.
Mapping change in the overnight money market
M. L. Beck, C. T. Bergstrom, M. Rosvall, and R. J. Garratt
Physica A 424: 44-51
Also Federal Reserve Bank of New York Staff Reports #507.
[PDF]

2014

Timing of antimicrobial use influences the evolution of antimicrobial resistance during disease epidemics
M. M. Tanaka, B. M. Althouse, and C. T. Bergstrom
Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health 2014: 150-161
[HTML] [PDF]
Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges
S. P. Carroll, P. S. Jorgensen, M. T. Kinnison,C. T. Bergstrom, R. F. Denison, P. Gluckman, T. B. Smith, S. Y. Strauss, and B. E. Tabashnik
Science 346: 1245993
[PDF]
Supplementary material: [PDF]
Cost-effectiveness of open access publications
J. West, T. C. Bergstrom, and C. T. Bergstrom
Economic Inquiry 52: 1315-1321
[PDF]
Finding Cultural Holes: How Structure and Culture Diverge in Networks of Scholarly Communication
D. A. Vilhena, J. G. Foster, M. Rosvall, J. D. West, J. A. Evans, and C. T. Bergstrom
Sociological Science 1:221-238
[PDF]

2013

When unreliable cues are good enough
M. C. Donaldson-Matasci, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Lachmann
The American Naturalist 313-327
[PDF]
Honest signalling with costly gambles
F. Meacham, A. Perlmutter, and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of the Royal Society Interface 10:20130469
[PDF]
The role of gender in scholarly authorship
J. D. West, J. Jacquet, M. M. King, S. J. Correll, and C. T. Bergstrom
PLoS One 7: e66212
Also arXiv:1211.1759 [q-bio.PE]
[HTML] [PDF]
Bivalve network reveals latitudinal selectivity gradient at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
D. A. Vilhena, E. B. Harris, C. T. Bergstrom, M. E. Maliska, P. D. Ward, C. A. Sidor, C. A. E. Stromberg, and G. P. Wilson
Scientific Reports 3:1790
[HTML] [PDF]
Author-Level Eigenfactor Metrics: Evaluating the Influence of Authors, Institutions and Countries Within the SSRN Community
J. D. West, M. C. Jensen, R. J. Dandrea, G. J. Gordon, and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of the American Society of Information Science and Technology 64:787-801
[SSRN][PDF]
Also Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 11-001.
Hoptrees: Branching History Navigation for Hierarchies
M. Brooks, J. D. West, C. Aragon and C. T. Bergstrom
Interact2013 316-333
[PDF]
Choosing partners: A classroom experiment
C. T. Bergstrom, T. C. Bergstrom, and R. J. Garratt
Journal of Economic Education 44:47-57
[PDF]
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics went to Al Roth and Lloyd Shapley for the research expored in this classroom exercise.
Between cheap and costly signals: the evolution of partially honest communication
K. J. S. Zollman, C. T. Bergstrom, and S. M. Huttegger
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 280:20121878
[PDF]

2012

The regularities of facts
C. T. Bergstrom
Nature 490:36
[PDF]
A review of Sam Arbesman's book The Half-Life of Facts.
Nodal dynamics determine the controllability of complex networks
N. J. Cowan, E. J. Chastain, D. A. Vilhena, J. S. Freudenberg, and C. T. Bergstrom
PLoS One 7: e38398
[HTML] [PDF]
This paper addresses a recent publications by Liu, Slotine, and Barabasi 2011 Controllability of Complex Networks Nature 473:167-173.
Evolution and medicine in undergraduate education: A prescription for all biology students
M. F. Antolin, K. P. Jenkins, C. T. Bergstrom, B. J. Crespi, S. De, A. Hancock, K. A. Hanley, T. R. Meagher, A. Moreno-Estrada, R. M. Nesse, G. S. Omenn, and S. C. Stearns
Evolution. 66:1991-2006
[PDF]

2011

Evolutionary biology within medicine: a perspective of growing value
P. D. Gluckman and C. T. Bergstrom
British Medical Journal. 343:d7671.
[PDF]
Can Ignorance Promote Democracy?
J. D. West and C. T. Bergstrom
Science. 334: 1503-1504.
[PDF]
This paper is a perspective on Couzin et al (2011) in the same issue of Science.
Evolutionary principles and their practical application
A. P. Hendry, M. T. Kinnison, M. Heino, T. Day, T. B. Smith, G. Fitt, C. T. Bergstrom, J. Oakeshott, P. S. Jorgesnsen, M. P. Zalucki, G. Gilchrist, S. Southerton, A. Sih, S. Strauss, R. F. Denison, and S. P. Carroll
Evolutionary Applications 4:159-183.
[PDF]
The transmission sense of information
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Rosvall
Biology and Philosophy. 26: 159-176. Published online October 2009. Also arXiv:0810.4168v1 [q-bio.PE].
[PDF]
Response to commentaries on "The Transmission Sense of Information"
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Rosvall
Biology and Philosophy 26: 195-200
[PDF]
This paper responds to commentaries by Shea, Maclaurin, and Godfrey-Smith.
Multilevel compression of random walks on networks reveals hierarchical organization in large integrated systems
M. Rosvall and C. T. Bergstrom
PLoS One 6: e18209. Also arXiv:1010.0431
[HTML] [PDF]

2010

The Eigenfactor MetricsTM: A network approach to assessing scholarly journals
J. D. West, T. C. Bergstrom, and C. T. Bergstrom
College and Research Libraries 71:236-244
[PDF]
Use ranking to help search
C. T. Bergstrom
Nature 465: 870.
[PDF]
Response to Big Macs and Eigenfactor Scores: The Correlation Conundrum
J. D. West, T. C. Bergstrom, and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61:2592
[PDF]
Big Macs and Eigenfactor Scores: Don't Let Correlation Coefficients Fool You
J. D. West, T. C. Bergstrom, and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 61:1800-1807 . Also arXiv:0911.1807
[PDF]
The map equation
M. Rosvall, D. Axelsson, and C. T. Bergstrom
European Journal of Physics 178:13-23. Also arXiv:0906.1405v1 [physics.soc-ph]
[PDF] [ Flash applets ]
The fitness value of information
M. C. Donaldson-Matasci, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Lachmann
Oikos 119: 219-230.
This replaces Bergstrom and Lachmann 2005 arXiv q-bio/0510007
[PDF]
Mapping Change in Large Networks
M. Rosvall and C. T. Bergstrom
PLoS One 5: e8694. Also arXiv:0812.1242 [physics.soc-ph]
[HTML] [PDF]
A public choice framework for controlling transmissible and evolving diseases
B. M. Althouse, T. C. Bergstrom, and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 1696-1701.
[PDF]
Making evolutionary biology a basic science for medicine
R. Nesse, C. T. Bergstrom, P. T. Ellison, J. S. Flier, P. Gluckman, D. R. Govindaraju, D. Niethammer, G. S. Omenn, R. L. Perlman, M. D. Schwartz, M. G. Thomas, S. C. Stearns, and D. Valle
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 1800-1807.
[PDF]

2009

Dealing with deception in biology
C. T. Bergstrom
In B. Harrington, ed. Deception: methods, motives, contexts & consequences. Stanford University Press
[PDF]
The Eigenfactor Metrics: How the Journal of Biological Chemistry stacks up
J. D. West, M. Stefaner, and C. T. Bergstrom
ASBMB Today April: 20-21
[]

2008

Differences in impact factor across fields and over time
B. M. Althouse, J. D. West, C. T. Bergstrom, and T. Bergstrom
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60: 27-34
Also arXiv:0804.3116v1 [physics.soc-ph]
[PDF]
Assessing citations with the EigenfactorTM Metrics
C. T. Bergstrom and J. D. West
Neurology 71: 1850-1851
[PDF]
The EigenfactorTM Metrics
C. T. Bergstrom, J. D. West, and M. A. Wiseman
Journal of Neuroscience 28: 11433-11434
[PDF]
Phenotypic diversity as an adaptation to environmental uncertainty
M. Donaldson-Matasci, M. Lachmann, and C. T. Bergstrom
Evolutionary Ecology Research 10: 493-515
[PDF]
An evolutionary biologist considers the virulence of emerging infectious diseases
C. T. Bergstrom
Nature 453: 261
[PDF]
Note: This is a short commentary about an important paper by Bull and Ebert (2008) in the inaugural issue of Evolutionary Applications.
Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure
M. Rosvall and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 105:1118-1123
Also arXiv physics.soc-ph/0707.0609v3
[PDF]
Building trust by wasting time
C. T. Bergstrom, B. Kerr, and M. Lachmann
In P. Zak, ed. Moral Markets: The Critical Role of Values in the Economy. Princeton University Press
[PDF]
The ecology and evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Feldgarden
In S. Stearns and J. Koella, eds., Evolution in Health and Disease, Second Edition. Oxford University Press
[PDF]

2007

Little Evidence for Genetic Susceptibility to Influenza A (H5N1) from Family Clustering Data
V. E. Pitzer, S. J. Olsen, C. T. Bergstrom, S. F. Dowell, and M. Lipsitch
Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13: 1074-1076
[PDF]
Eigenfactor: Measuring the value and prestige of scholarly journals
C. T. Bergstrom
C&RL News 68(5)
[PDF]
An information-theoretic framework for resolving community structure in complex networks
M. Rosvall and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:7327-7331 Also arXiv physics/0612035
[PDF]
The evolution of functionally referential meaning in a structured world
M. C. Donaldson and M. Lachmann and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of Theoretical Biology 246:225-233
[PDF]
On the Evolutionary Origin of Aging
M. Ackermann, L. Chao, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Doebeli
Aging Cell 6:235-244
[PDF]
Antibiotic Resistance and Hospital-Acquired Infection
C. T. Bergstrom
In R. Nesse, ed., Evolution and Medicine: How New Applications Advance Research and Practice
Henry Stewart Talks Ltd., London

2006

The economics of ecology journals
C. T. Bergstrom and T. C. Bergstrom
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4:488-495
[PDF]
Evolution lessons from infectious diseases
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Lipsitch
Geotimes, March 2006
[HTML]
Pandemic Influenza: Risk of Multiple Introductions and the Need to Prepare for Them
C. E. Mills, J. M. Robins, C. T. Bergstrom, and M. Lipsitch
PLoS Medicine 3:6
[HTML]   [PDF]
How do adaptive immune systems control pathogens while avoiding autoimmunity?
C. T. Bergstrom and R. Antia
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21:22-28
[PDF]
Letter: Multiple Outbreaks and Flu Containment Plans
M. Lipsitch, J. M. Robins, C. E. Mills, and C. T. Bergstrom
Science 312:845
[PDF]

2005

Preparation H5N1
M. Lipsitch and C. T. Bergstrom
The New Republic November 4th
[PDF]
Evolution in action: Understanding Antibiotic Resistance
D. Genereux and C. T. Bergstrom
In J. Cracraft and R. W. Bybee, eds., Evolutionary Science and Society: Educating a New Generation. AIBS/BCSC.
[PDF]
On RNA interference as template immunity
C. T. Bergstrom and R. Antia
Journal of Biosciences 30:101-103
[PDF]
A population-epigenetic model to infer site-specific methylation rates from double-stranded DNA methylation patterns.
D. P. Genereux and B. E. Miner and C. T. Bergstrom and C. D. Laird
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:5802-5807
[PDF]

2004

The disadvantage of combinatorial communication
M. Lachmann and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 2337-2343
[PDF]
Shannon information and biological fitness
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Lachmann
Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Information Theoery
[PDF]
Real-Time Tracking of Control Measures for Emerging Infections
M. Lipsitch and C. T. Bergstrom
American Journal of Epidemiology 160: 517-519
[PDF]
Note: This editorial addresses the excellent paper by Wallinga and Teunis (2004) in the same volume. See also the original authors' reply to our piece.
Ecological theory suggests that antimicrobial cycling will not reduce antimicrobial resistance in hospitals
C. T. Bergstrom, M. Lo, and M. Lipsitch
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101: 13285-13290
[PDF]
Can 'author pays' journals compete with 'reader pays'?
T. C. Bergstrom and C. T. Bergstrom
Nature web focus on Open Access publishing.
[HTML]   [PDF]
The costs and benefits of library site licenses to academic journals.
C. T. Bergstrom and T. C. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:897-902.
[PDF]

2003

The role of evolution in the emergence of infectious diseases
R. Antia, R. R. Regoes, J. C. Koella, and C. T. Bergstrom.
Nature 426:658-661
[PDF] [Supplementary material]
Mathematical models of RNA silencing: Unidirectional amplification limits accidental self-directed reactions
C. T. Bergstrom, E. K. McKittrick, and R. Antia
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:11511-11516
The evolution of mutator genes in bacterial populations: The roles of environmental change and timing
M. M. Tanaka, C. T. Bergstrom, and B. R. Levin
Genetics 164:843-854
[PDF]
The Red King effect: Evolutionary rates and the division of surpluses in mutualisms.
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Lachmann.
Chapter 12 in P. Hammerstein, ed., Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
[PDF]
Interspecific mutualism: Puzzles and predictions
C. T. Bergstrom, J. L. Bronstein, R. Bshary, R. C. Connor, M. Daly, S. A. Frank, H. Gintis, L. Keller, O. Leimar, R. Noe, and D. C. Queller
Chapter 13 in P. Hammerstein, ed., Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation. Cambridge: MIT Press.
[PDF]
Models of CD8+ responses. 1. What is the antigen-independent proliferation program?
R. Antia, C. T. Bergstrom, S. Pilyugin, S. M. Kaech, and R. Ahmed
Journal of Theoretical Biology 221:585-598
[PDF]
Effect of human leukocyte antigen heterozygosity on infectious disease outcome: The need for allele-specific measures
M. Lipsitch, C. T. Bergstrom and R. Antia
BMC Medical Genetics 4:2
[PDF]
The Red King Effect: When the slowest runner wins the coevolutionary race
C. T. Bergstrom and M. Lachmann
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100: 593-598
[PDF]

2002

Separating equilibria in continuous signalling games
C. T. Bergstrom, Sz. Szamado, and M. Lachmann
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 357: 1595-1606
[PDF]
Addendum: a better intuitive explanation for the proof of main proposition in this paper.
Within-host population dynamics and the evolution of microparasites in a heterogeneous host population
V. V. Ganusov, C. T. Bergstrom, and R. Antia
Evolution 56:213-223.
[PDF]
Modeling of antibiotic resistance in the ICU - U.S. slant
Lipsitch, M. and C. T. Bergstrom
Chapter 19 in R. A. Weinstein and M. Bonten, eds., Infection control in the ICU environment. Kluwer.
[PDF]

2001

Cost and conflict in animal signals and human language
M. Lachmann, Sz. Szamado, and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 98:13189-13194
[PDF]
Note: "Cost and conflict" is a combination of two earlier Santa Fe Institute Working Papers, #01-05-27, "The peacock, the sparrow, and the evolution of human language," and #00-12-74, "The death of costly signalling?".
Alarm calls as costly signals of anti-predator vigilance: The Watchful Babbler game.
Bergstrom C. T. and M. Lachmann
Animal Behaviour 61:535-543
[PDF]

2000

Natural selection, infectious transfer, and the existence conditions for bacterial plasmids
C. T. Bergstrom, M. Lipsitch, and B. R. Levin.
Genetics 155 :1505-1519.
[PDF]
Bacteria are different: Observations, interpretations, speculations, and opinions about the mechanisms of adaptive evolution in prokaryotes
B. R. Levin and C. T. Bergstrom
Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences USA 97:6981-6985
[PDF]
Toward a theory of mutual mate choice: Lessons from two-sided matching
Bergstrom, C. T. and L. A. Real
Evolutionary Ecology Research 2 :493-508.
[PDF]
The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: Paradoxes and prescriptions
Lipsitch, M., C. T. Bergstrom, and B. R. Levin.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:1938-1943
[PDF]

1999

Does Mother Nature Punish Rotten Kids?
Bergstrom, C. T. and T. C. Bergstrom
Journal of Bioeconomics 1:47-72
[PDF]
Transmission bottlenecks as determinants of virulence in rapidly evolving pathogens.
Bergstrom, C. T., P. McElhany, and L. A. Real.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96:5095-5100
[PDF]
Risky business: Sexual and asexual reproduction in variable environments
Robson, A. J., C. T. Bergstrom, and J. K. Pritchard.
Journal of Theoretical Biology 197:541-556
[PDF]

1998

Pure versus mixed strategists: the evolution of behavioral heterogeneity in individuals and populations.
Bergstrom, C. T. and P. Godfrey-Smith.
Biology and Philosophy 13:205-231
[PDF]
Germline bottlenecks and the evolutionary maintenance of mitochondrial genomes
Bergstrom, C. T. and J. K. Pritchard
Genetics 149:2135-2146
[PDF]
Signalling Among Relatives. III. Talk is cheap.
Bergstrom, C. T. and M. Lachmann
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 95: 5100-5105
[PDF]
Signalling Among Relatives. II. Beyond the Tower of Babel.
Lachmann, M and C. T. Bergstrom
Theoretical Population Biology 54:146-160
[PDF]

1997

Signalling Among Relatives. I. When is signalling too costly?
Bergstrom, C. T. and M. Lachmann
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 352:609-617.
[PDF]

1995

Multiple Mating, Sperm Competition, and Meiotic Drive
Haig, D. and C. T. Bergstrom
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 8:265-282.
[PDF]